Events preceding World War II in Europe and Causes of World War II Germany was defeated in World War Iand the Treaty of Versailles placed punitive conditions on the countryincluding significant financial reparationsthe loss of territory some only temporarilywar guilt, military weakening and limitation, and economic weakening. Germany was humiliated in front of the world and had to pay very large war reparations. Many Germans blamed their country's post-war economic collapse and hyperinflation on the treaty's conditions. These resentments contributed to the political instability which made it possible for Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist Party to come to power, with Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany in
The most important new activity in German-occupied Europe was the appearance of organized civilian resistance. At first, there were only individual acts of defiance, like that of the Dutch film projectionist who ran a newsreel of advancing Germans backward, to the brief delight of his audience.
But the resistance movements took shape in every country and grew to become a major problem in policing for the Germans as the war turned against the Nazi regime. In retaliation, the Nazis increased the severity of the military occupation, imprisoned and executed hostages.
Thus a shadow form of civil war intensified as the regular war front crumbled before the Germans. Civilian life was plagued by shortages of food, fuel, medicine.
But the most pressing problem was housing, and this most drastic in Germany. Consider only the following single statistical unit: On August 24,the German city of Koenigsberg was attacked by British bombers.
The estimated damage of the raid was one hundred and thirty-four thousand people made homeless, and sixty-one thousand people forced to live in badly damaged houses. After the war, new cities had to be built - Coventry, Rotterdam, and Berlin being examples - and they were technocratically planned.
With an irony that once again underlined the fact that history is a human affair, the destruction of the war brought about considerable reorganization. Even before the war, the Soviet leadership began the relocation of Russian industry in and beyond the Ural Mountains so that it would not be susceptible to immediate ground attack from the West.
During the war the Germans decentralized industrial production by dispersing aircraft factories around the country in order to protect them against concentrated bombing attack.
And under the German occupation, the puppet government of France, known as the Vichy Regime from the city in which its capital was located, sought economic reorganization and began the foundations of what would be postwar planning under Jean Bichelonne, an engineering professor who was Minister of Production and Transport.
Even more unusual, and with effects not easily measurable, was the intellectual migration the war produced. In the s eminent scientists like Albert Einstein had left Nazi Germany, but immediately after the war, both the United States and Russia undertook a rushed treasure hunt as they sought to find and then utilize German scientists, notably those involved in rocket research.
Werner von Braun, guiding genius of German war rocketry, came to the United States, eventually became an American citizen, and is today recognized as the technocratic father of American space efforts.
Thus, the war destroyed and forced the rearrangement of much of the old social and economic structure of Europe, just as it rearranged the political map.
The truth is the European world we now know was born in debris. The War in a Global Setting No balanced historical analysis can afford to treat the European war as disunified from the global war. Among the major continents, only Latin America was spared serious involvement.
Even Australia, traditionally known as "down under," feared Japanese invasion. And American blimps patrolled the Atlantic coast of this formerly "isolated" nation in search of preying submarines.
For once in military engagement, the world was viewed from above. While it is certainly true that the infantry soldier struggled and sacrificed to defeat the enemy, and ultimate victory was his, the war of the air was all important. The fighter defense of Great Britain and the bomber offensive against Germany after altered the proportions of the war.
In a tone of despair, the British prime minister, Stanley Baldwin, had said in"The bombers will always get through. Across the world, the Pacific naval war was essentially an aerial war, with aircraft carriers serving as seaborne take-off points.The aftermath of the Hundred Years War led two nations down their very unique path: France and England.
By the end of the war, England would never again hold any major territory on mainland Europe, and France was established as a powerhouse that y.
The end of the Thirty Years War produced a number of dramatic consequences and altered Western Europe in significant religious, political, and social ways.
Generally speaking, the post-war period produced the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the subsequent fall of the Hapsburg powers. The List of Major Wars and Conflicts of the 20th Century All of these wars, conflicts, revolutions, civil wars, and genocides shaped the 20th century.
Below is a chronological list of the major wars of the 20th century. Mar 01, · The Second World War (WWII) was one of the major transformative events of the 20th century, with 39 million deaths in Europe alone. Large amounts of physical capital were destroyed through six years of ground battles and bombing.
Many individuals were forced to abandon or give up their property without compensation and . was a propoganda committee that built support for the war effort in Europe among Americans. Napoleon ended the French Revolution, created the Napoleonic code of civil law and waged conquest throughout Europe during the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon's ideals of freedom, social equality and abolishing European feudalism impacted many European nations. The French Revolution was a tumultuous time.