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According to the National Student Clearinghouse, enrollment in was down about 2. List of American institutions of higher education and List of state universities in the United States Colleges and universities in the U. Many combine some or all of the above, being a comprehensive university.
In the US, the term "college" refers to either one of three types of education institutions: Unlike colleges versus universities in other portions of the world, a stand-alone college is truly stand-alone and is not part of a university, and is also not affiliated with an affiliating university.
Almost all colleges and universities are coeducational. During a dramatic transition in the s, all but a handful of men's colleges started accepting women. Higher education has led to the creation of accreditation organizationsindependent of the government, to vouch for the quality of competing degrees.
The accreditation agencies rate universities and colleges on criteria such as academic quality, the quality of their libraries, the publishing records of their faculty, the degrees which their faculty hold, and their financial solvency.
Accrediting agencies have been criticized for possible conflicts of interest that lead to favorable results. Community colleges[ edit ] Community colleges are often, though not always, two-year colleges.
They have open admissionswith generally lower tuition fees than other state or private schools. Many students earn an associate degree at a two-year institution before transferring to a four-year institution to complete studies for a bachelor's degree.
The elevation in status comes from a cooperation between the community college and a local university. There are two primary distinctions between colleges and community colleges that arise from this arrangement.
Four-year colleges usually have a larger number of students, offer a greater range of studies, and provide the bachelor's degree most commonly the Bachelor of Arts B. They are primarily either undergraduate institutions i.
The first is an increased standardization of curricula and adherence to some university guidelines at the colleges, thereby improving the chances that former community college credits are transferred to in-state universities.
The aim is to maximize the number of transferred credits, as this has traditionally been a frequent issue that forces students to take redundant coursework, pay more tuition unnecessarily, as well as giving them unfair competitive advantage at university. The second primary distinction is that the renamed colleges, in cooperation with a university, can offer courses that go beyond the 2-year-level of education that is typical of community colleges.
Some colleges go so far as to offer particular, specialized 4-year bachelor's degrees on behalf of the university. Yet there are factors which contribute to those who do in fact decide to enroll into college despite their socioeconomic status.
The cultural resources looked at were ethnic identity, family interdependence and parental support to distinguish how these factors helped Latino students, not only during the enrollment process to colleges, but also, to see if it were advantageous towards them having a positive college experience.
The family interdependence served those in low socioeconomic statuses in a positive direction while most Latinos hold a part-time or full-time job and balance the responsibilities of their lives including work and family.
Most Latino college students have a strong desire to succeed in their education as a repayment to not only their parents, but also the sacrifices their families made when immigrating to the United States.
Ethnic identity can be a process when one explores the implication they have in their ethnicity which result in a stronger, more secure sense of self that helps in their decision making not only in college, but throughout their lives.
Some disadvantages that lead to a negative college experience can range from such conditions of language barriers, stress, broader social and community networks within which Latino families are embedded. According to the article, New York State public middle schools were reported having the least experienced teachers, most teachers teaching out of certification and even the highest rate of teacher turnover.
The disadvantages highlighted in the article that focus on Latinos in middle school are pertinent because it shows just how early the Latino communities are faced with handicaps in the educational system.
These city High Schools can be overly populated with majority being minority who happen to not be receiving the same attention as those in the white suburban counterparts.
The students are provided with the bare minimum of information towards continuing their education, many being left wondering what they should do resulting in having to do research on their own because of the lack of information given relating to resources including financial aid and college life.
Antonia Pantoja inwere founded as a way to address the ever-growing issues such as drop-out rates and low educational attainment amongst the Latino community. The program was built off of the belief that Puerto Ricans could be freed from poverty by emphasizing a focus on educating the youth, developing leadership skills, as well as establishing a stronger sense of cultural identity in the community.
After discovering the educational gap between whites and Latinos, the coalition aimed to promote practices and policies that would improve educational equity and level of accessibility to higher learning institutions amongst the Latino communities.
In doing so, ASPIRA set out to establish themselves as a formal education service, creating charter schools in inner cities to improve the educational gap within the Latino communities.
The coalition not only placed a heavy concern on parental involvement in the child's education, it also aimed to make college accessible to those students who are immigrants and have no access to federal student aid and tuition assistance programs, despite being a part of the public-school system for most of their lives.
This program is implemented in these schools with the purpose of providing mentorship for students and social networking amongst students and professors. As mentioned earlier, it was founded to improve the education of Puerto Ricans and Latino communities.
It also aimed to provide opportunities for the youth and their families that they might not have been presented with before. Their facilities are found in midtown Manhattan at 15 W 36th Street.
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